Legal duty

Legal requi­re­ment through the Trade Regu­la­ti­on Act

The expert know­ledge exami­na­ti­on is man­da­to­ry under § 34a of the Trade, Com­mer­ce and Indus­try Regu­la­ti­on Act (GewO) in order to be allo­wed to car­ry out the fol­lo­wing acti­vi­ties in the guar­ding trade:

  1. Pat­rols in public traf­fic are­as or in are­as with actu­al public traf­fic (e.g. city pat­rols, rail­way sta­ti­ons, shop­ping centres)
  2. Pro­tec­tion against shop­lif­ters (shop or depart­ment stores’ detective)
  3. Guards in the ent­rance area of dis­co­the­ques in the hos­pi­ta­li­ty indus­try (boun­cers)
  4. Guar­ding com­mu­nal accom­mo­da­ti­on or other real estate and faci­li­ties used for the offi­ci­al accom­mo­da­ti­on, even tem­po­r­a­ri­ly, of asyl­um see­kers or refu­gees, in a mana­ge­ri­al capacity
  5. Guar­ding of access-pro­tec­ted major events in a mana­ge­ri­al capacity
  6. Self-employ­ed acti­vi­ty in the guar­ding busi­ness (secu­ri­ty contractor)

“Hos­pi­ta­b­ly” means that you are employ­ed as an employee of a secu­ri­ty com­pa­ny by their cus­to­mers, e.g. in a dis­co­the­que as a boun­cer. (You yours­elf are not direct­ly employ­ed by the discotheque).

But § 34a GewO is not only rele­vant for the employee, also for Secu­ri­ty con­trac­tor (employ­er/s­elf-employ­ed per­son), it con­ta­ins important pro­vi­si­ons: The entre­pre­neur must be per­so­nal­ly sui­ta­ble (“relia­ble”), i.e. he must not have any rele­vant cri­mi­nal record. He or she must not live in dis­or­der­ly finan­cial cir­cum­s­tances, and must also be able to show appro­pria­te finan­cial means and secu­ri­ties and have taken out suf­fi­ci­ent lia­bi­li­ty insu­rance for the busi­ness. In addi­ti­on, the entre­pre­neur hims­elf must be appro­pria­te­ly trai­ned and must also have suc­cessful­ly pas­sed the expert know­ledge exami­na­ti­on accor­ding to § 34a GewO. A 80 hours of ins­truc­tion is requi­red for trades­men sin­ce Decem­ber 2016 to open a guar­ding busi­ness. no lon­ger suf­fi­ci­ent. The guar­ding trade is sub­ject to a per­mit by the com­pe­tent aut­ho­ri­ty and may only be taken up after its approval.

Sup­ple­men­ta­ry regu­la­ti­ons can be found in the Bewa­chungs­ver­ord­nung (BewachV), which was issued on the basis of § 34a GewO. Among other things, it con­ta­ins detail­ed regu­la­ti­ons on the trai­ning pro­ce­du­re and the exami­na­ti­on of exper­ti­se. It also con­ta­ins sup­ple­men­ta­ry pro­vi­si­ons on the requi­red lia­bi­li­ty insu­rance of the secu­ri­ty com­pa­ny (insu­rance sums), fur­ther obli­ga­ti­ons when exer­cis­ing the trade (e.g. obli­ga­ti­on to car­ry a ser­vice card) as well as pro­vi­si­ons on the punish­ment of vio­la­ti­ons (admi­nis­tra­ti­ve offences).

You can access the com­ple­te legal texts on the internet:

Reasons of the legis­la­tor for the expert know­ledge examination

Why is an exami­na­ti­on actual­ly requi­red by the legis­la­tor for the abo­ve-men­tio­ned activities?

On the one hand, the acti­vi­ties lis­ted are par­ti­cu­lar­ly ris­ky: the num­ber of repor­ted acci­dents among door­men and depart­ment stores’ detec­ti­ves is abo­ve avera­ge within the secu­ri­ty indus­try. And the­re are also grea­ter dan­gers lur­king when you are out and about in the public sec­tor. On the other hand, in the­se are­as you are always deal­ing with new peo­p­le who are unknown to you. The dan­ger of an attack on you is signi­fi­cant­ly increased. You must be awa­re of this and the­r­e­fo­re have spe­cial com­pe­tence and advan­ced know­ledge. You will have to inter­fe­re with the rights of third par­ties more often in the abo­ve-men­tio­ned acti­vi­ties and should the­r­e­fo­re have sound know­ledge of what you are allo­wed to do and what you are not allo­wed to do!
The writ­ten and oral exami­na­ti­on at the Cham­ber of Indus­try and Com­mer­ce (IHK) is inten­ded to ensu­re that you have the requi­red know­ledge in any case.

Distinc­tion from information

What is the dif­fe­rence bet­ween the exami­na­ti­on of exper­ti­se and instruction?

Very important and the­r­e­fo­re men­tio­ned here again as a sepa­ra­te point is the distinc­tion from the pure ins­truc­tion pro­ce­du­re accor­ding to § 34a GewO, which is offe­red with 40h* of time:
Mere ins­truc­tion in accordance with § 34a GewO is not suf­fi­ci­ent to be allo­wed to work in the abo­ve-men­tio­ned are­as of the secu­ri­ty indus­try! The Infor­ma­ti­on pro­ce­du­re is an ent­ry requi­re­ment in order to be allo­wed to take up any acti­vi­ty in the secu­ri­ty indus­try at all, but includes not the spe­cial guar­ding acti­vi­ties.
A suc­cessful­ly pas­sed Aach­kun­de exam at the Cham­ber of Indus­try and Com­mer­ce, on the other hand, qua­li­fies you to work in prin­ci­ple in all are­as to be allo­wed to work in the industry.

Over­view of qua­li­fi­ca­ti­on levels:

  1. Ins­truc­tion 40h*
    Basic ent­ry requi­re­ment for a job in the secu­ri­ty guard industry
  2. Exper­ti­se test
    Man­da­to­ry requi­re­ment for taking on spe­cial sur­veil­lan­ce acti­vi­ties (see above).
    Man­da­to­ry requi­re­ment for entre­pre­neu­ri­al acti­vi­ties in the secu­ri­ty indus­try (self-employ­men­t/­tra­de)
    Befo­re taking the exami­na­ti­on no tea­ching or pre­pa­ra­to­ry cour­se pre­scri­bed.

*) Note:
The time spe­ci­fi­ca­ti­ons are tea­ching hours, wher­eby a tea­ching unit (in accordance with the guar­ding ordi­nan­ce) must cor­re­spond to 45 minu­tes. The pure ins­truc­tion accor­ding to § 34a GewO includes not with a reco­g­nis­ed exami­na­ti­on at the Cham­ber of Indus­try and Com­mer­ce (IHK).
The 80-hour trai­ning cour­se, which was also pos­si­ble for pro­s­pec­ti­ve trad­ers until Novem­ber 2016, has been dis­con­tin­ued, and an expert know­ledge exami­na­ti­on in accordance with § 34a GewO is now man­da­to­ry here.

Pro­hi­bi­ti­on of the activity

Both the entre­pre­neur and the employees of a secu­ri­ty com­pa­ny can be pro­hi­bi­ted from car­ry­ing out their acti­vi­ties. This is the case if the com­pe­tent aut­ho­ri­ty (usual­ly the muni­ci­pal trade office or public order office) has facts that give rise to jus­ti­fied doubts about the per­so­nal relia­bi­li­ty. As a rule, the­se are rele­vant pre­vious con­vic­tions of the per­son con­cer­ned, which beco­me known to the aut­ho­ri­ty through unrest­ric­ted infor­ma­ti­on from the Fede­ral Cen­tral Regis­ter (BZR). Infor­ma­ti­on from the poli­ce and, if neces­sa­ry, from the Office for the Pro­tec­tion of the Con­sti­tu­ti­on is also taken into account. Mem­ber­ship in a ban­ned orga­ni­sa­ti­on or cer­tain asso­cia­ti­ons can also be grounds for prohibition.

When taking up a cor­re­spon­ding acti­vi­ty in guar­ding, one must be of age.

Guard regis­ter

A new fea­ture sin­ce June 2019 is that a sta­te guard regis­ter is main­tai­ned nati­on­wi­de. Initi­al­ly, the Fede­ral Office of Eco­no­mics and Export Con­trol (BAFA) was respon­si­ble for its ope­ra­ti­on under the juris­dic­tion of the Minis­try of Eco­no­mics. Sin­ce 1 July 2020, the Fede­ral Minis­try of the Inte­ri­or and Home Affairs (BMI) has been respon­si­ble for the regis­ter, which is ope­ra­ted by the Fede­ral Sta­tis­ti­cal Office (Desta­tis). The com­pe­tent (local) regu­la­to­ry aut­ho­ri­ty as well as each secu­ri­ty com­pa­ny is respon­si­ble for ente­ring the data. A trader must regis­ter and dere­gis­ter each secu­ri­ty guard and also manage­ment staff online via the guard regis­ter. For this pur­po­se, each secu­ri­ty guard recei­ves an indi­vi­du­al guard regis­ter iden­ti­fi­ca­ti­on num­ber (guard ID), via which he/she can be cle­ar­ly assi­gned. In par­ti­cu­lar, data enab­ling the iden­ti­fi­ca­ti­on of secu­ri­ty guards (first and last name, resi­den­ti­al address, iden­ti­fi­ca­ti­on docu­ment, etc.), data pro­ving relia­bi­li­ty (result of the last inspec­tion, etc.) as well as qua­li­fi­ca­ti­on (e.g. IHK cer­ti­fi­ca­te of pro­fes­sio­nal com­pe­tence with date and place of the issuing cham­ber) are stored. The main aim of the regis­ter is to impro­ve sta­te con­trol possibilities.

Reco­gni­ti­on of other degrees

The legis­la­tor wai­ves the addi­tio­nal exami­na­ti­on for cer­tain groups of per­sons or pro­fes­si­ons. The fol­lo­wing degrees and qua­li­fi­ca­ti­ons are reco­g­nis­ed and also entit­le the hol­der to take up spe­cial secu­ri­ty acti­vi­ties pur­su­ant to § 34a GewO:


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